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La noche de los muertos vivientes: Apocalipsis de bajo presupuesto


Yo siempre tuve la idea de que La noche de los muertos vivientes no era únicamente la película de zombies en blanco y negro que tozudamente un amigo mío pretendía que viese en una cinta Scotch (ya no las veo, ya no existen) que conservaba como joya absoluta del cine. La vi y no me pareció una joya absoluta del cine. En todo caso, me pareció una estupenda película de terror escorado a la comedia o una película cómica que forzaba, a golpe de víscera, desgarro y truculencias varias, el ingreso en el territorio del terror. Hace de esto veinte años y anoche pude verla en una más que aceptable edición en DVD que superaba, a pesar del áspero blanco y negro, la joya de mi amigo. Ya no le veo (las circunstancias son las previsibles: la distancia, que es el olvido, y el tiempo, que es el bicho cabrón que impide los afectos y las rutinas en esos afectos) pero no puedo evitar pensar en aquellos años míos de arrebatado amor al cine y la visión, entre la incertidumbre y la fascinación, de la obra de George A. Romero.
Ahora aprecio lo que entonces no supe: el valor, el aspecto fundacional de un género que Romero desintegró para después recomponer sin que esa urgencia artística fuese apuntada a cuenta de la habitual ferocidad de la crítica.
La noche de los muertos vivientes es el certificado de defunción del cine gótico al uso, de las casas encantadas y de los fantasmas de sudarios corruptos y almas en pena con ropajes nauseabundos y mirada desquiciada. A partir de aquí, el género se desembarazó del noble peso del fantastique y abrazó caminos nuevos, caminos alumbrados por las luces de la guerra fría y del miedo real a que algún polìtico oscurantista y emparanoiado apretara el botón fatídico. Ya saben: el juguete mortal de Oppenheimer que Sting retrataba graciosamente en la fantástica Russians.
Y la cinta tuvo que molestar, imagino: su tono semidocumental, su desvaído concepto de lo que consideramos un guión y el tono crepuscular de los personajes afianza la idea de revolución, de inquietud preñada de sorpresa. Luego ( y a partir de este escueto luego podemos escribir un volumen indecente sobre la Historia del Terror a partir de estos zombies apocalípticos) vino una avalancha de películas paridas por la madre que nos ocupa, pero menores, inevitablemente embadurnadas de un discurso menos relevante, apenas perturbadoras y, en casi todos los casos - excepción de la estupenda y reciente La tierra de los muertos vivientes -, plana en emoción y en cinismo. Porque la película de 1.968 de George A. Romero es una enciclopedia del cinismo: un artefacto de imprevistos efectos colaterales.
Los críticos mayúsculos de la época coincidieron en el carácter social de la película. Pues estupendo: hay carácter social. Vietnam, el miedo nuclear, la espantosa guerra sin guerra que duró cuarenta años y que formó a varias generaciones en la ceguera y en la forja de una nacionalismo profundo y bien documentado. Pero Romero no quiso llegar a tanto: hay circunstancias que rodean a ciertos eventos artísticos - un libro, un disco, una película - que colaboran involuntariamente en su condición de mito. Ésta son evidentes y Romero únicamente prestó el atrezzo, los zombies, el tufillo expresionista, el casi abandono cuidado formal y, sobre todo, el argumento: ese rumor que acaba convertido en tumulto y que siembra de cadáveres la ciudad, otrora reducto de confort y plácido escenario de la vida aburguesada de una población inocente, engañada y adoctrinada en el convencimiento de que ninguna otra vida mejor podía ser posible. Los muertos, los que no tienen descanso, vienen para reventar ese catecismo inútil.
Incluso el origen de esos muertos, nunca contado, puede inducir al estremecimiento: no sabemos si regresan a torturar a los vivos merced a algún sortilegio tóxico o es una mera consecuencia de los inescrutables designios de lo oscuro, de lo ajeno a la cartesiana solidez de lo real y tangible, de lo material y mesurable. ¿ Vudú, toxinas, experimentos? A Romero no le importa el origen: él desea exhibir el desconsuelo, la imposibilidad de encontrar un asidero - físico, espiritual - con el que vencer al mal.
Todos los muertos que andan, esos cadáveres comidos por el asco, deambulan sin propósito moral: los desplaza el instinto primordial del hambre, que tampoco Romero explica. Ni falta que hace. Ninguna otra película de zombies que haya seguido a ésta nos abastece de explicaciones. Importa el nítido dibujo de la demolición de una sociedad tal vez gastada, infectada por los mismos virus que cuartean la piel, desmembran la carne y levantan a los muertos de sus féretros. Éste es el caos y no la moderna visión de La Jungla 4.0.

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27 comentarios:

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Romero parió una obra maestra precisamente por eso que citas,Emilio: su hermetismo. Lo que da miedo es aquello que no se conoce, que no se entiende. Esos zombies bien podrían ser, aplicados al contexto actual, un grupo de subsaharianos recien apeados de una patera. Lo social está presente, con multitud de lecturas, pero Romero deja que sea el espectador el que interprete. Él se limita a narrar de modo aspero con desasosegantes imagenes sucias y mucha negrura. Lo demás está sujeto a interpretaciones, y sólo las grandes obras pueden ser interpretadas de mil modos. Rupturista, sí, pero sin olvidar la raíz clásica del género. Hay muchas horas de visionado a oscuras de Murnau, Tourneur y Browning en la mirada de Romero. Él nunca lo negó. Más rupturista fue Tobe Hopper con su "La Matanza de Texas". El gore tomó carta de naturaleza renegando de los tímidos experimentos que se atrevieron a indagarlo con anterioridad. Pero Romero y sus zombies son otra cosa. Un grande al que, desgraciadamente, le faltó continuidad.

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